UlmaceaeElm family

  - Leaves simple, alternate, distichous, often serrate.
  - Leaf often weakly 3-veined with unequally lobed base.
  - Petioles not swollen at apex.
  - Stringy bark.
  - Only simple hairs, these often scratchy on leaf upperside.
  - Flowers small, without petals, unisexual.
  - Fruit small, with fleshy rind and one seed.

Diagnosis: Trees and climbers, with free stipules, stringy bark without mucilage, leaves simple, alternate, distichous, venation subpalmate or 3-veined, serrate except Ampelocera, base unequal or lobed, often with scratchy simple hairs.

Similar families
Betulaceae: glabrous, two teeth per lateral vein, rare.
Flacourtiaceae: hairs not scratchy on leaf upperside, some with translucent dots or spines.
Ochnaceae: lateral veins strongly ascending with parallel intersecondary veins, glabrous.
Rhamnaceae: no scratchy hairs on leaf upperside, rare.
Ticodendraceae: stipule scar circles twig, glabrous.
Urticaceae: hairs not scratchy on leaf upperside, leaves usually spiraled.

Diversity: Total: 4 genera, 4 species. Trees: 3 genera, 3 species.

Credits: Images and text copyright 2000-2007, William A. Haber, http://efg.cs.umb.edu/