- woody shrub or small tree
- stout curved spines and shallowly lobed leaves
- 3 cm white flowers
Description: Shrub or small tree mature at 1.5-6 m; curved spines on stem, branches, petiole and veins; leaves large with shallow lobes, stem leaves with deeper lobes, pubescence of stellate hairs; flowers 3 cm across, white with yellow anthers, corolla partly fused; fruits to 2 cm, globose, dull yellow when mature.
Local distribution: Grows on Pacific slope above 1400 m and down to 800 m on Atlantic slope; at the TV towers (1860 m).
Species range: Mexico to Panama
Habitat: Roadsides, abandoned pastures, landslides, disturbed soil.
Phenology: Flower: most of year, especially wet season (dec, jan, mar, may). Fruit: mature during and after flowering (may-jun).
Pollinators: Large bees
Seed dispersers: Bats, rarely birds (Blue-gray tanager).
Comments: Locally common in pastures and overgrown roadsides, rare in cloud forest gaps and landslides. Becomes scarcer down the dry Pacific slope.