- large herb with dense long straight spines
- leaves with distinct lobes
- flowers pale green
- fruit sticky, marked with green marbling
Description: Erect herb, 1-2 m; stems and leaves with dense straight spines; leaves large with prominent tooth-like lobes; flowers 1.5-2.5 cm across, pale green with yellow anthers, calyx spiny; fruit 1-2 cm, globose, green with darker green streaking, surface sticky.
Local distribution: Cloud forest above 1500 m elevation; less common in Pacific slope wet forest down to 1300 m and down to 900 on the Atlantic side.
Species range: Mexico to South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru)
Habitat: Light gaps, road sides, and overgrown pastures.
Phenology: Flower: most of the year (mar, jul, sep-nov). Fruit: becoming mature during flowering (jul).
Pollinators: Large bees, including Bombus spp.
Seed dispersers: Bats, rarely birds
Comments: The growth form is usually erect with a single stem. Grows in light gaps, pastures and roadsides in cloud forest; less common lower on the dry Pacific slope.